Atomic Structure: Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model. Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wave functions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p and d), Spin. Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule, Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, inter gas radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure VSEPR mode Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters, Molecular Structure: Lewis picture and resonance structures, VSEPR model and molecular shapes, Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds and hybridization (s, p and d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only, Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond. p-d- and f-block elements : General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group, Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides and halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis. Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, All otropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids and halides of phosphorus, Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids, hydrides and halides of sulphur, Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids, d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography, f-Block elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids, Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and haemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds. Biological, Industrial and Environmental chemistry : The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle, Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomericcarbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen. Proteins :Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes, Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA and RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code, Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones, Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers, Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry, Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry : Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4 , Na2SO3, Na2S2O3 and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3. Qualitative analysis of Pb+2, Cu+2 As+3, Mn+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2, Mg+2, NH+, Fe+3, Ni+2 and the anions CO-2, S-2, SO-2, SO2-, NO-, NO-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO-3, CHCOO-, CO-2, Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate, temperature vs solubility pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6] and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions, Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – R values, Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorousand halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation, Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae, Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.
English and LR
ENGLISH : Question tags, Phrasal Verbs, Spelling, Analogy, Reconstruction (rewording), Rearrangement, LOGICAL REASONING : Logical Deduction – Reading Passage, Figure Matrix
Probability : Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of proba bility. Conditional probability, total probability and Baye’s theorem, Independent events, Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance. Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry : Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin. Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines. Circles and family of circles : Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal and chords, parametric equations of a circle, inters ection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal. Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices and foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent and normal, conditions for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point of tangency. Mathematical modeling. Formulation of simple real life problem, solution using matrices, calculus and linear programming.
Oscillations : Kinematics of simple harmonic motion, Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum, Forced and damped oscillations, resonance, Waves : Progressive sinusoidal waves, Standing waves in strings and pipes, Superposition of waves, beats, Doppler Effect, Heat and Thermodynamics : Kinetic theory of gases, Thermal equilibrium and temperature, Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling, Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics, 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance. Modern Physics : Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength, Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model, Hydrogen atom spectrum, Radioactivity, Nuclear reactions : Fission and fusion, binding energy Electronic Devices : Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; IV characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch