DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD : What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy and Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids. Prokaryotic Cell (Bacteria). Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY : General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Basic Mathematics used in Physics-
ALGEBRA : Quadratic Equation (Roots of quadratic equation, Solution by Factorization and by Shridharacharya Formula, Properties of roots (real, equal, imaginary etc), Application of Quadratic equation in physics), Binomial Theorem and binomial approximation, Logarithm and Exponents (Laws of logarithms and exponents with applications /examples), Series (Arithmetic Progression and its general term and Sum, Sum of first n Natural numbers, Geometrical Progression and its general term and Sum, Sum of infinite GP), Componendo and Dividendo rule.
TRIGONOMETRY : Angle and its measurement (Sexagesimal and Circular system), Trigonometricratios, Trigonometric identities, Four Quadrants and ASTC rule, T-ratios for general angles, Addition/ subtraction Formulae, Small angle Approximation, Ranges of T-functions.
CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY : Define Origin, Axis or Axes, Co-ordinates of a point in a plane or space (2D or 3D), Distance Formula, Slope of a line and its interpretation, Graphs of commonly used functions(Straight line, Parabola, Circle, Ellipse, Hyperbola including rectangular hyperbola, Sinusoidal functions (sine and cosine functions), Exponential functions.
CALCULUS: Differential calculus (Average rate of change and Instantaneous rate of change, Differentiation of commonly used functions, Rules of differentiation including Product and Quotient rules, Application of derivatives: Increasing and Decreasing nature, Maxima and Minima with geometrical / graphical explanation), Integral calculus (Integration is the reverse process of differentiation, Indefinite and Definite Integration, Integration of commonly used functions, Rules of Integration, Application of Integral calculus: Area under a curve and Average value of a continuous function in an interval)
VECTORS : Definition of scalar and vector quantities, Graphical representation of vectors, Notation of Vectors, Angle between two vectors, Types of Vectors (Unit vector, Null vector, Equal vectors and equality of vectors, opposite and Negative of a vector, Parallel and anti-parallel vectors, Co-planar vectors, axial vectors), Position and displacement vectors, Addition/subtraction of two vectors (Triangle law, Parallelogram law), Addition of many vectors (Polygon law),Unit vectors and their significance (Representation of vector in terms of unit vector in plane and in space), Resolution of a Vector into components i.e. Cartesian Components in two and three dimensions and Direction Cosines, Multiplication or Division of a Vector by a Scalar (i.e. Real number), Scalar (Dot) product of two Vectors and component of a vector in the direction of another vector, Vector (Cross) product of two Vectors with its geometrical interpretation and Right hand rule for direction.
UNIT, DIMENSIONS AND MEASUREMENTS : Classification of Physical Quantities according to their dependency i.e. Fundamental (or Base) and Derived quantities, Need for measurement (Units of measurement), Systems of units (FPS, CGS, MKS, SI system of units and Supplementar y units, fundamental and derived units, Some idea about Practical and Improper units), Standards of Length, mass and time measurements, Dimensions of physical quantities, Dimensional Formulae of important physical quantities, Dimensional analysis and its applications and its limitations, SI prefixes and general guidelines for using Symbols of SI units, Errors in measurement (Systematic, Random and Least count Errors), Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments ; Absolute Error, Relative Error, Percentage Error and Combination of Errors, Significant figures and its rules for Arithmetic operations (i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), Rounding off the uncertain digits.