PLANT PHYSIOLOGY : Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation. Transpiration : Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention). Mineral Nutrition : Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration : Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient. Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulatorsauxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Biomolecule Enzyme - Types, Properties and enzyme action.
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION : Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. Biology and Human Welfare : Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Apiculture and Animal husbandry (Domestication of Animals).
Human Physiology-I : Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea. Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders. Body Fluids and Circulation : Composition of blood, blood. groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism. Human excretory system : Structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function- Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Ecology and environment and Demography : Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution (Demography). Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its Conservation : Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental Issues : Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Human Physiology-II : Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal musclecontractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system- Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout. Neural Control and Coordination : Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear. Chemical Coordination and Regulation : Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease).
p-Block Elements : General Introduction to p-Block Elements. Group 13 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies. Group 14 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds : (Carbon and Silicon) oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses. Group 15 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorousallotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements : Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. REDOX REACTIONS : Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers. HYDROGEN : Position of Hydrogen in Periodic Table, Dihydrogen (H2), Hydrides, Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure. Dihydrogen as a fuel.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY–SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES : General introduction, Tetra valence of carbon: Shapes of organic compounds, structural representation of organic compounds, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions (Reaction Mechanism). HYDROCARBONS : Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes : Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation. Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Coordination Compounds : Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding in coordination compound, Werner's theory VBT, CFT; importance and applications of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems). d and f Block Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids. Some application of d and f block elements. s-BLOCK ELEMENTS (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) : Group I and group II elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers : Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Some commercially important alcohols. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids : Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY : Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen : Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places. Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Polymers : Classification - Natural and synthetic, Molecular mass of polymers, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), co-polymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. Polymers of commercial importance. Biomolecules : Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance. Proteins - Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea (excluding structure). Vitamins - Classification and function. Nucleic Acids : DNA and RNA Chemistry in Everyday Life : Chemicals in medicines (Drugs) - analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action. Methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis STATES OF MATTER : Gases and Liquids : Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charle's law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. LIQUID STATE : Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
ROTATIONAL MOTION : Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a fixed axis: Comparison of linear and rotational motions, Moment of inertia, radius of gyration and its significance. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (Ring, Rod and Disc with derivation and others with no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications, Moment of a force-torque, Equilibrium of rigid bodies, Angular momentum, Relation between torque and Angular momentum, Conservation of angular momentum with some examples, Pure Rolling or rolling motion on a smooth/rough horizontal surface. Expression for Rotational Kinetic Energy, Rolling motion on an inclined plane, Expression for acceleration and minimum friction coefficient. Alternating Current : Alternating current and Voltage, Measurement of AC, Comparison between AC and DC, Peak, Average and RMS value of alternating current/voltage, Circuit elements in ac circuits (Resistive Circuit, Capacitive Circuit, Inductive Circuit), RC, RL circuits and their Reactance and impedance in series and parallel combination, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, Resonance, Quality Factor, Power in AC circuits, Wattles Current, Power Factor. Electromagnetic Waves : Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only), Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
THERMAL PHYSICS : (Thermal Expansion, Calorimetry, Heat Transfer, KTG and Thermodynamics) Temperature and Thermal Expansion (Temperature, Temperature scales, Brief idea about thermometers, Thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion) Calorimetry (Heat, Heat capacity, Specific heat capacity, Molar heat capacity, Water Equivalent, Heat of transformation – latent heat, Principle of Calorimetry, Heating curve, Phase diagram) Heat transfer Conduction : (Process, Steady State, Law of Conduction, Thermal conductivity, Thermal resistance, Series and Parallel combinations of rods, Growth of ice on ponds), Convection : Process, Idea about Natural and Forced Convection, Radiation: Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Ideal Black Body, Absorptive Power, Emissive Power, Spectral Emissive Power, Kirchhoff's Law and its applications, Stefan's Law, Newton's law of cooling, Wien's displacement law and Green House effect, Solar constant. Thermodynamics : Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (Zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Cyclic, Isochoric, Isobaric, Isothermal and Adiabatic processes, Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. Kinetic theory of gases : Gas Laws, Equation of state of a perfect gas, Brief idea of van der Waals' equation and Critical temperature, Assumptions, Concept of pressure. Different types of speeds of gas molecules, Maxwell's velocity distribution curve, Kinetic energy and temperature; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; Concept of mean free path. Ray optics and optical Instruments : Reflection of light (Laws of Reflection, Reflection at Plane Surface (Plane Mirror): Formation of Image, Deviation, Rotation of mirror, Number of images, velocity of image, Minimum length of mirror to see full image of a man, Field of view, Reflection at Spherical Surface(Curved Mirror: Rules of image tracing, Image formation in concave and convex mirrors, Focal length of spherical mirrors, Relation between u, v and f (i.e. Mirror Equation for Para-axial rays), Sign convention, Magnification), Refraction of light at Plane Surface(Snell's law, Total internal reflection and its applications (Mirage, Looming, Diamond, prism and optical fibers), Optical Path, Lateral and normal shift], Refraction at spherical surfaces(single and double surface), Lenses (Thin lens formula, Lens-maker's formula, Magnification, Power of a lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Combination of a lens and a mirror, Silvering of Lenses, Chromatic and Spherical Aberrations.), Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism, combinations of prisms, Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight (Rainbow-dispersion of sun light and TIR, Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset), Optical instruments (Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism) using lenses, Microscopes and telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers)
PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND FLUID MECHANICS : Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy. Pressure, Pascal's law, Archimedes' Principle and Buoyancy. Floatation and Translatory equilibrium, Variation of Pressure with Depth, Atmospheric pressure and Gauge Pressure, Hydraulic Machines, Streamline and turbulent flow, Critical velocity and Reynolds's number, Principle of Continuity, Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. Speed of Efflux: Torricelli's law, Venturi-meter, Dynamic lift, Viscosity, Newton's law of viscous force, Stokes' law, terminal velocity,Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Detergent and surface tension WAVE OPTICS : (Nature of light, Interference, Diffraction & Polarization) Wave front and Huygens' Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens' Principle, Coherent and incoherent sources, LASER(only qualitative idea),Superposition of Light Waves: Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light,Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Eye and Rayleigh Criterion, Polarisation, Polarisation by Scattering and Reflection, plane polarized light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroid's.
GRAVITATION : The universal law of gravitation (Newton's law of Gravitation), Gravitational Field and its Intensity, Brief idea about Inertial and Gravitational mass, Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Idea about variation in g due to Shape and Rotation of earth, Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential, Kepler's laws of planetary motion (The law of orbits, Areas and Periods), Motion of Planets and Satellites in Circular orbits, Orbital velocity of a satellite, Total Energy and Binding Energy of a satellite, Escape velocity and escape energy, Geostationary satellites, Idea about of polar satellites, Weightlessness. OSCILLATIONS : (SHM, damped and forced oscillations and Resonance) Periodic (harmonic) motion and Oscillatory motion, Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time, Periodic functions, Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; Velocity, Acceleration and Phase, Oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant. Equivalent spring constant of Series and parallel combinations, Energy in SHM - Kinetic and Potential energies, Simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period, Superposition of two SHMs of Same Frequency in the same direction, Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Modern Physics : Photoelectric effect (Hertz observation, Hallwach's and Lenard's observations, Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light (photon), Matter waves (Wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained), Atoms (Alpha-particle scattering experiments; Rutherford's model of atom, Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum), X-rays and their elementary idea, Nuclei (Composition and size of nucleus, Atomic masses, Isotopes, isobars, isotones and isodiapheres, Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, Nuclear fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear Force and its properties, Radioactivity (Law of Radioactive decay, Alpha decay, Beta decay, Gamma decay)
WAVE MOTION AND DOPPLER'S EFFECT : Wave motion, Mechanical Waves, Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation of Plane Progressive waves, Velocity of Transverse mechanical waves, Intensity of waves, Sound waves: Audible, Infrasonic and Ultrasonic waves, Speed of sound waves: Newton's formula and Laplace correction, Effect of temperature, Pressure and Humidity on speed of Sound waves, Some idea about description of sound waves as Displacement and Pressure waves, Characteristics of sound waves: Pitch, Loudness and Quality, Reflection and transmission of waves and Echo, Principle of superposition of waves, Interference and Beats, Stationary waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Resonance tube, Doppler Effect in Sound waves and Light Waves. Semiconductor and Digital Electronics : Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semi-conductors on the basis of (Conductivity, Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), Intrinsic Semiconductor, Extrinsic Semi-conductor (n-type and p-type), p-n Junction: p-n junction formation, Barrier potential, Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier and Filter (only qualitative idea), Special purpose p-n junction diodes and their IV characteristics (LED, Photodiode, Solar cell, Zener diode), Junction Breakdown: Zener and Avalanche breakdown, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction Transistor (n-p-n and p-n-p Transistor structure and action, Characteristics of a transistor, Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), Transistor as a switch (i.e. ON and OFF), Transistor as a oscillator with feedback effects), Digital Electronics and Logic gates (Law of Boolean algebra and De Morgan's Theorem, Basic Logic gates (OR gate, AND gate, NOT gate) (Combination of gates (NAND gate, NOR gate) Brief Idea about ICs) * Principles of Communications Basic Components of a Communication System, Analog and Digital Communications, Bandwidth of Signals, Bandwidth of Transmission Medium, Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves: Ground Wave, Sky Wave and Space Wave, Modulation and its Necessity, Amplitude Modulation: Modulation Factor, Sideband Frequencies, Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave, Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave, Power in AM wave, Brief idea about Frequency Modulation