Structural Organization in Plants : Morphology and family modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be deal along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD : What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens, key
Plant Diversity : Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids. Prokaryotic Cell (Bacteria) Salient features and classification of plants into major groupsAlgae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples). Alternation of generation concept.
ANIMAL KINGDOM : Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples). Cockroach + Earthworm + Frog.
Structural Organization in Animals : Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive).
Biomolecule : Chemical constituents of living cells : Biomolecules structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.
Cell Structure and Function : Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organe lles-structure and function; Endomembrane system endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleusnuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Cell Division : Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY : Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant - water relations -Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation.
Transpiration : Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral Nutrition : Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation, mechanism of absorption of mineral & their translocation & soil as reservoir.
Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; early experiments site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration : Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism. Biomolecule Enzyme - Types, Properties & enzyme action, inhibition, factors & Co-factors, Nomenclature & Classification
Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respirator y volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
Body Fluids and Circulation : Composition of blood, blood. groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronar y artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Human excretory system : Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricote lism. Structure and function; Urine for mation, Osmore gulation; Regulation of kidney function-Reninangiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Human Physiology-II : Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal musclecontractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural Control and Coordination : Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical Coordination and Regulation : Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormonesas messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
STRUCTURE OF ATOM : Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES: Why do we need to classify elements, Genesis of periodic classification. Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number > 100, Electronic configuration of elements and types of elements, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ioni zati on enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency.
CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE : Kossel Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding, Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of cova lent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond, Dipole Moment.
EQUILIBRIUM : Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier's principle. Ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY : General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry. Laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
THERMODYNAMICS : First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. Third law of thermodynamics-Brief introduction.
REDOX REACTIONS: Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
HYDROGEN : Position of Hydrogen in Periodic Table, Dihydrogen (H2), Hydrides, Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure. Dihydrogen as a fuel.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES: General introduction, Tetra valence of carbon: Shapes of organic compounds, structural representation of organic compounds, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocati ons, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions (Reaction Mechanism).
Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes-Nomencl ature, structure of tr iple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of-hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromatici ty; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
s-BLOCK ELEMENTS (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals): Group I and group II elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY : Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
STATES OF MATTER: Gases and Liquids : Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charle's law. Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. K inetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
LIQUID STATE : Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
BASIC MATHEMATICS USED IN PHYSICS :
ALGEBRA: Quadratic Equation (Roots of quadratic equation. Solution by Factorization and by Shridharacharya Formula, Properties of roots (real, equal, imaginary etc). Application of Quadratic equation in physics), Binomial Theorem and binomial approximation, Logarithm and Exponents (Laws of logarithms and exponents with applications / examples), Series ( Arithmetic Progression and its general term and Sum, Sum of first n Natural numbers, Geometrical Progression and its general term and Sum, Sum of infinite GP), Componendo & Dividendo rule. TRIGONOMETRY: Angle & its measurement (Sexagesimal and Circular system), Trigonometric-ratios, Trigonometric identities, Four Quadrants & ASTC rule, T-ratios for general angles, Addition/subtraction Formulae, Small angle Approximation, Ranges of T-functions. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY: Define Origin, Axis or Axes, Co-ordinates of a point in a plane or space (2D or 3D), Distance Formula, Slope of a line and its interpretation, Graphs of commonly used functions( Straight line, Parabola, Circle, Ellipse, Hyperbola including rectangular hyperbola, Sinusoidal functions (sine and cosine functions), Exponential functions. CALCULUS: Differential calculus ( Average rate of change and Instantaneous rate of change. Differentiation of commonly used functions. Rules of differentiation including Product and Quotient rules. Application of derivatives: Increasing and Decreasing nature, Maxima and Minima with geometrical / graphical explanation), Integral calculus (Integration is the reverse process of differentiation, Indefinite and Definite Integration, Integration of commonly used functions. Rules of Integration, Application of Integral calculus: Area under a curve and Average value of a continuous function in an interval),
Definition of scalar and vector quantities. Graphical representation of vectors. Notation of Vectors, Angle between two vectors, Types of Vectors (Unit vector, Null vector, Equal vectors and equality of vectors, opposite and Negative of a vector, Parallel and anti-parallel vectors, Co-planar vectors, axial vectors), Position and displacement vectors, Addition/subtraction of two vectors (Triangle law, Parallelogram law), Addition of many vectors (Polygon law), Unit vectors and their significance (Representation of vector in terms of unit vector in plane and in space), Resolution of a Vector into components i.e. Cartesian Components in two and three dimensions and Direction Cosines, Multiplication or Division of a Vector by a Scalar (i.e. Real number) .Scalar (Dot) product of two Vectors and component of a vector in the direction of another vector, Vector (Cross) product of two Vectors with its geometrical interpretation and Right hand rule for direction.
UNIT, DIMENSIONS AND MEASUREMENTS
Classification of Physical Quantities according to their dependency i.e. Fundamental (or Base) and Derived quantities, Need for measurement (Units of measurement), Systems of units (FPS, CGS, MKS, SI system of units and Supplementary units, fundamental and derived units, Some idea about Practical and Improper units), Standards of Length, mass and time measurements. Dimensions of physical quantities, Dimensional Formulae of important physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and its applications & its limitations, SI prefixes and general guidelines for using Symbols of SI units, Errors in measurement ( Systematic, Random and Least count Errors), Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; Absolute Error, Relative Error, Percentage Error and Combination of Errors, Significant figures and its rules for Arithmetic operations (i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Rounding off the uncertain digits.
Electric charges and their basic properties, Conductors and Insulators, Method of charging: Charging by Friction, Charging by Induction and Charging by Conduction, Gold-leaf Electroscope. Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, force, between multiple charges and Superposition principle. Equilibrium of charge systems and SHM, EIectric field Intensity, electric field due to a point charge and a system of charges. Electric field due to an arc. Electric field on an axial point of Ring, Electric field lines and their properties, Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to(lnfinitely long straight wire, Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet .Uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside) .Electric potential, Potential difference, Electric potential due to( A point charge, A system of charges, Ring(on an axial point), Conducting and non conducting sphere),Electrical potential energy of a system of two/more than two point charges, Equipotential surfaces. Relation between Field and Potential, Motion of charged particle in Electric Field, Electric dipole and dipole moment(Electric Potential due to a dipole, Electric field due to a dipole. Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field, Electrical potential energy of electric diploes in an electrostatic field, Work done in rotating a dipole)
(Motion along a straight line and Motion in a Plane)
Motion and Rest with introduction of frame of reference, Variables of Translatory Motion (Position/ Displacement / Path length(Distance), Velocity/ Speed / Average Velocity / Average Speed, Acceleration / Average Acceleration ), Relation among various variables of motion and their applications to variable acceleration, Equations of Motion with constant acceleration (scalar and vector forms), Motion along a straight line, velocity-time and position-time graphs for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment), Motion under gravity, Free-fall, Motion in a plane with constant acceleration, Projectile Motion -Ground to Ground projection. Projection from a height (Horizontal projection), Relative Motion in one-dimensions, Relative Velocity in two dimensions ( Rain-Man problem, River-Boat Problem & wind based questions)
CURRENT ELECTRICITY AND HEATING EFFECTS OF CURRENT
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, relaxation time and their relation with electric current and current density. Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-l characteristics (liner and non-linear),Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors, Series and parallel combinations of resistors, Temperature dependence of resistance, lnternal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws (KCL and KVL) and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge. Meter Bridge, Potentiometer-principle and applications to, Measure potential difference, For comparing emf of two cells, Measurement of internal resistance of a cell, Moving coil galvanometer and its, Current sensitivity and voltage sensitivity, Conversion to ammeter and voltmeter, Electrical energy and power. Applications to Electric Bulbs and Heaters.
LAWS OF MOTION AND FRICTION
Intuitive concept of force, Ba sic or Fundamental forces in nature, The law of Inertia, Newton's first law of motion, Momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse , Newton's third law of motion, Common forces in mechanics-Weight, Normal reaction. Friction, Contact force. Tension in string, Free Body diagram. Equilibrium of concurrent forces-Lami's theorem. Motion of bodies in contact or connected by strings. Pulley systems, Frame of Reference-lnertial and Non Inertial Frames. Pseudo Force and its applications, Cause of Friction, Static and Kinetic friction, Laws of friction. Limiting Static and Kinetic friction coefficients. Angle of Friction, Angle of Repose, Rolling friction, Lubrication.
Concept of Capacity, Capacitors and capacitance. Capacity of an Isolated Spherical Capacitor, Sharing of Charges, Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, Work done by Battery in charging of a capacitor. Energy stored in a capacitor, Charging and discharging of a Capacitor, Van den Graaff generator.
WORK, ENERGY, POWER
Work done by a constant force (use of dot product) and variable force(use of definite integration i.e. area under the curve), Kinetic energy, Work-energy theorem for a Constant and a Variable force, Concept of potential energy, conservative forces and non-conservative forces. Gravitational Potential Energy, Potential energy versus position graph and stable, unstable & neutral equilibrium, Spring force and Elastic Potential energy of a spring, Conservati on of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies), Power ( Instantaneous and Average power).
Kinematics of circular motion (Variables of motion (Angular Displacement, Angular Velocity, Angular acceleration). Relations among Angular Variables for constant angular acceleration, General relation among angular variables ), Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road), Dynamics of non-uniform circular motion(Motion in a vertical circle)
MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
Concept of magnetic field. Oersted's experiment, Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop and straight wire, Ampere's law and its applications to (Infinitely long straight wire, Straight and toroidal solenoids), Circular motion of a moving charged particle in uniform magnetic field. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields (Lorentz force)(Velocity Selector, Cyclotron], Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field, Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, Bar Magnet(Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid. Magnetic field lines),Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Magnetic properties of Materials (Diamagnetism with examples. Para magnetism with examples, Ferromagnetism with examples and brief analysis of magnetic Hysteresis, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, Permanent magnets)
COLLISIONS AND CENTRE OF MASS
Impulse of a force and Impulse-Momentum theorem, Idea about Impulsive forces, Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions (Head-on and Oblique collisions). Coefficient of restitution and line of impact. Expression of loss in Kinetic energy in inelastic collision, Centre of mass of discrete system: two-particle system and n-particle system, Centre of mass of continuous system: General formula, Centre of mass of symmetrical rigid bodies; centre of mass of uniform rod, Centre of mass of composite and truncated bodies, Motion of centre of mass: Velocity, Acceleration and linear momentum vector of centre of mass of the system, Momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
Magnetic Flux, Electromagnetic induction(Faraday's Experiments),Faraday's law. Induced emf, induced, current and induced charge, Lenz's Law and its applications. Static, Dynamic and Rotational Emf, Induced Electric Field and its properties, Eddy currents. Self lnduction (Coeffkient of self induction (L), Growth and Decay of Current in L-R circuits),Mutual lnduction(Coefficient of Mutual induction (M), Coefficient of Coupling (K)],AC generator, Transformer.
Alternating current and Voltag e, Measurement of AC, Comparison between AC and DC, Peak, Average and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage. Circuit elements in ac circuits(Resistive Circuit, Capacitive Circuit, Inductive Circuit), RC, RL circuits and their Reactance & impedance in series and parallel combination, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, Resonance, Quality Factor, Power in AC circuits, Wattles Current, Power Factor.
Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only),Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.